モンゴル諸語テキスト資料集成 Online text of Mongolic languages モンゴル諸語テキスト資料集成 Online text of Mongolic languages


About Shinekhen Buryat

Shinekhen Buryat is spoken by the Shinekhen Buryat people who inhabit the region around the Shinekhen river basin in Hulunbuir City, Inner Mongolia, China. Furthermore, Shinekhen Buryat is the mother tongue of another ethnic group called the Khamnigan Evenki. The ancestors of the Shinekhen Buryat and Khamnigan Evenki people lived in the Russian Empire until the Russian Civil War. About 3,000 Buryat and Khamnigan Evenki refugees crossed the Argun River (a branch of the Amur River) after the war. Migration continued until 1931, when the Manchukuo demarcated the border. Language consultants now say that about 6,000 people live around the Shinekhen basin and speak Shinekhen Buryat as their mother tongue. The linguistic characteristics of Shinekhen Buryat are very similar to those of the eastern dialects of Buryat (i.e., the Aga and Khori dialects). However, three generations have passed since they migrated from Russia (USSR). Mongolian and Chinese, which are used in daily conversations in this area, have infulenced their language.

The recorded text of the Shinekhen Buryat


A Swan and a Hunter (narrated by Mr. Jamsu)


Ts. Jamsu / Ts. Jamsu


This is a narration of the Khori Buryat ancestral tradition, narrated by a different speaker. This is a shorter, more compact narrative. While most Shinekhen Buryat are from the Aga Buryat, the narrator, Mr. Jamsu, is originally from the Khori Buryat. In his reflections, Mr. Jamsu is aware that he uses a language that is a mixture of Buryat and other Mongolian dialects, and phonological features not found in the original Buryat language can be found in this narrative. Compare with another speaker's narrative (https://mongolictxt.aa-ken.jp/detail/shibur_002swan).


A Swan and a Hunter (narrated by Ms. Dugarmaa)


Ts. Dugarmaa / Ts. Dugarmaa

これはシネヘン・ブリヤートが属する民族集団,ホリ・ブリヤートの起源に関する伝承である。日本各地に伝わる羽衣伝説をはじめ,世界各地に見られる白鳥処女説話 (Swan Maiden) と称される異類婚姻譚のひとつであり,羽衣伝説とあらすじが非常によく似ている。ホリ・ブリヤートには11の氏族があるが,これら氏族の祖が,異類婚姻によって生まれた11人の子供たちであると言い伝えられている。この11人の兄弟が今の氏族間の序列を表しており,いまも婚礼など儀礼の際にはこの序列順に着席する慣わしが継承されている。別の話者の語り(https://mongolictxt.aa-ken.jp/detail/shibur_0021swan-2)と比較されたい。

This folktale concerns the origin of the Khori Buryats, an ethnic group to which the Shinehen Buryats belong. It is a key example of the interspecies marriage stories known as the Swan Maiden tales, which are found all over the world, and the plot is extremely similar to the Hagoromo (Feather Mantle) legend passed down in various parts of Japan. There are 11 clans of the Khori Buryats, whose ancestors are said to be the 11 children born from an interspecies marriage. These 11 siblings represent the ranking order of the 11 clans today, and even now customs have been inherited such as sitting in rank order during ceremonies such as marriage ceremonies.


A Boy with a Golden Breast and Silver Buttocks


Ts. Dugarmaa / Ts. Dugarmaa

「金の胸と銀の尻をした」altan seezʲtei muŋgen bugseteiというフレーズは他の民話にも出てくる表現で,非常に優れていることを含意する表現とみられる。奇妙な世界観だが,展開は素直である。

The phrase "altan seezʲtei möŋgen bögsetei" (chest of gold and buttocks of silver) is an expression that also appears in other folktales, and implies that someone is of extremely high standing. Despite being an unusual way to see the world, the story unfolds in a straightforward manner.


Cow's Kidney


Ts. Dugarmaa / Ts. Dugarmaa


This is a story that tells why cow's kidney is so different with the other animals.


Pick Up Meat If You Drop It


Ts. Dugarmaa / Ts. Dugarmaa


This is a story that tells why we should pick up meat during our trip.


A Pig-fortuneteller


Ts. Dugarmaa / Ts. Dugarmaa

この民話はブリヤート,もしくはモンゴル固有のものではない。古代インドで生まれたヴェーターラ・パンチャヴィンシャティ (Vetālapañcaviṃśati) という物語集 がある。これがチベット高原に伝わり,仏教文化による変容を経て再構成されたと考えられる説話集がある。これが仏教・チベット文化ともにモンゴル高原に伝わり,シッディ・クール (shidi khüür「不思議な死体」) もしくはシデット・フーリーン・ウリゲル (shidet xüüriin üliger.「不思議な死体の物語」) として広まった。豚占い師はこのさまざまな物語のうちのひとつにあたる。地域によってはガハイ・バクシ (gaxai bagsh.「豚博士」の意) などとも呼ばれる。西脇 (2013: 219-224) によれば,この「豚占い師」に類似したモチーフの説話はモンゴル,チベットのほかにダグール,シベ,ウイグル,ミャオ(苗),朝鮮,満洲,漢民族にも伝わるという。(西脇隆夫編『シッディ・クール:モンゴル説話集』渓水社, 2013年)

This folktale is not native to the Buryats or to the Mongolians. It is from a collection of stories created in ancient India known as the Vetālapañcaviṃśati. It may have circulated in the Tibet and then been reconstructed through changes due to Buddhist culture. This was then transmitted with Tibetan Buddhist culture to the Mongolian Plateau, and spread as the shidi xüür (Mysterious Corpse) or the shidet xüüriin üliger (Tales of the Mysterious Corpse). The plot involves a corpse with magical powers telling various stories, among which is the story of the "Pig Soothsayer." Depending on the region, this may go by a different name, such as gaxai bagsh (Dr. Pig). According to Nishiwaki (2013: 219–224), aside from the Mongols and Tibetans, stories with motifs similar to the "Pig Soothsayer" have also been passed on by the Dagur, Sibe, Uyghur, Miao, Korean, Manchu, and Han Chinese people.


Why Had Buryat Shamans Dissappeared?


B. Abida / B. Abida

社会主義体制崩壊後,ロシアやモンゴルに暮らすブリヤートの中から非常に多くのシャーマンが生まれている(cf. 島村2011)。シネヘン・ブリヤートにもシャーマンがいるという話ではあるが,この話では「シャーマンがいなくなったわけ」を説明している。話者のアビダ氏が亡くなられたため確認するのが困難であるが,社会主義体制下におけるシャーマンの弾圧を理由付けするためにこういった説話が広まった可能性も考えられる。なお,この語りはいくつかブリヤート語ではなくモンゴル文語の読み下しと思われる箇所が頻発している。(島村一平『増殖するシャーマン: モンゴル・ブリヤートのシャーマニズムとエスニシティ』春風社, 2011年)

In Mongolia and Russia, shamanism had been repressed during the Soviet era After 1990s. Then when the Soviet era was over, shamanism made a comeback there. I suspect that this folktale was made during the Soviet era for persuading Buryat people that the shamanism is bad religion. It's a pity that we have no way to make sure of it since Mr. Abida, who told this tale to me, already passed away.


Why Did People Stop Killing the Elderly?


Ts. Dugarmaa / Ts. Dugarmaa


This story concerns the purported historical practice of abandoning old people in the mountains similar to Japan's "ubasute mountain." The legend spread widely across the world, especially through Buddhist and Daoist teachings. Since grain storage warehouses were not part of traditional Buryat culture, this story is thought to have been transmitted from somewhere else, rather than originating with the Buryats.


The Stupid, Tarib


Ts. Dugarmaa / Ts. Dugarmaa

「まぬけな (teneg) タリブ」という子供がさまざまな失敗をする話である。かなり残酷な描写もあるが,いずれも本人はよかれと思って行動した結果であり,そのギャップが笑いのポイントとなっている。

This is a story in which a child called "teneg (stupid) talib" makes various mistakes. Despite some rather gory depictions, there are points of humor arising from the gap between what a person does out of good will and the effects of those actions.


Old Man and Old Woman with a Spotted Cow


Ts. Dugarmaa / Ts. Dugarmaa

この民話のプロットは朝鮮半島では『호랑이와 곶감(トラと干し柿)』,日本では『ふるやのもり(古屋の漏り)』と,アジア各地に広く分布している。「虎狼より漏るが恐ろし」とこの話に由来することわざもある。ブリヤートではトラじたいは一般的に生息する生き物ではないため,おそらく他地域から伝わった民話だと推測される。

The plot of this folktale is distributed widely throughout Asia, known as "Tiger and Dried Persimmon" in the Korean Peninsula and "Furuya no Mori (Leakness of a ragged house)" in Japanese. This is also the story from which originates the proverb "Koroo yori moru ga osoroshi (a leak in your house is more frightening than a tiger or a wolf)." Since tigers did not generally live in Buryat regions, this folktale may have originated somewhere else.


A Boy who Became a King and a Boy who Became an Officer


Ts. Dugarmaa / Ts. Dugarmaa


This folktale is a kind that wise children exterminate monsters. The title which my consultant said literally means "The King's Boy and the Officer's Boy." However, it seems that those two boys do not seem to be the son of a king nor an officer. They became a king and an officer after they exterminated monsters.


Foals with Golden Breast and Silver Buttocks


Ts. Dugarmaa / Ts. Dugarmaa

「金の胸と銀の尻をした」altan seezʲtei muŋgen bugseteiというフレーズは他の民話にも出てくる表現で,非常に優れていることを含意する表現とみられる。タイトルからは仔馬が主人公のように見えるが,実際にはほとんど登場せず,重要なキャラクターともいえない。

We can find the phrase "with a golden breast and silver buttocks" in other folktales spoken by Dugarmaa. This phrase probably implies excellent talent. Although the title suggests that the foals are the main characters, they hardly appear in the story and are not considered to be any important characters at all.


Teekheljeekhen Khubuun (The boy, Teekheljeekhen)


Ts. Dugarmaa / Ts. Dugarmaa

いわゆる怪物退治のストーリーである。やや展開に説明不足の箇所があるが,一方で短いことでテンポよく展開している。伝統的な牧畜文化の特徴が描写されていたり,モンゴル高原の口承文芸に特徴的な頭韻法が一部で用いられているところが特徴的である。より詳細な解説は山越 (2024) を参照されたい。

This is a short story about a monster slaying. The story develops quickly and some scenes are observed that are not fully explained. However, it is also true that the short storyline makes the content fast-paced and easy to remember. In this folk tale, we can observe some aspects of traditional Buryat (or Mongolian) pastoral culture. A further feature of this folktale is the use of some of the head-rhyming techniques of Buryat (or Mongolian) oral literature. For a more detailed explanation, see Yamakoshi (2024).


History of Buryats


Ts. Jamsu / Ts. Jamsu


This is a discourse on how the Buryat, including the Shinekhen Buryat, came to be what they are today. The history is based on the narrators' memories and is not necessarily faithful to historical facts, but it is significant as a source to see how they perceive their own identity. The narratives are not in Buryat, but have some Mongolian features. It is thought that some code-switching has occurred.


Shinekhen Buryat Basic Sentences in Daily Conversation


Dondog / Dondog


This is a collection of basic sentences in Shinekhen Buryat. In order to collect the sentences, we used the questionnaire Translation of daily conversation that the research group for the Mongolic languages of Inner Mongolia University prepared in the 1980s.

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